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Civil Blog

Determination of slope ( Gental ) distance

Subject :- Surveying ( 17310)

We discussing about determination of slope with second year civil Engineering Diploma students in Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic which is best s polytechnic in Pune

At the time of discussion we know that when the slope of the ground surface is long and gentle, the stepping method is not suitable. In this method horizontal distance is not determined on field directly so it is called In-direct method of chaining.

  1. By measuring the slope with Clinometer
  2. By applying hypotenusal allowance
  3. By knowing the difference of level between the points.

1. by measuring the slope with clinometer.


Clinometer :- A Clinometer is graduated semicircular protractor. It consists of two pins (P1 & P2) for sighting the object. A plumb bob is suspended from point ‘o’ with thread. When straight edge is tilted Clinometer shows the angle of slope.

2. by measuring the slope with clinometer.


Suppose ‘C’ & ‘D’ are two points on sloping ground. Two ranging rods are fixed at these points ,then two other points ‘C1’& ‘D1’ are marked on the ranging rods so that CC1 = DD1. The Clinometer is placed in such a way that its center just touches the mark C1. The Clinometer is then inclined until the points P1,P2 &D1 are in same straight line. At this position the thread of the Clinometer will shows an angle which is the slope angle of ground. Suppose it is α and the sloping distance is also measured.
CB = l cos α , l = sloping distance (CD)

Mr. S.N. Nanaware

Lecturer Civil Engineering

Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic