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Mechanical Blog


1. International Yoga Day celebration in Mechanical department


On 21st June 2017 the International Yoga Day Celebrated in Mechanical Department of Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic,Which is one of best polytechnic in Pune. The idea of International Yoga Day was first proposed by the current Prime Minister of India, Mr. Narendra Modi during his speech at the UNGA, on 27 September 2014.

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Students performing yoga session in Mechanical department on “International Yoga day”. (BalAsana)

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Bhujangasana” by students to increase Metabolism.


Bal-Asana

The first picture shows the student performing Bal-asana on International Yoga Day at Mechanical Department of Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic Pune. This asana gets its name from the Sanskrit words ‘bala’ that means child and ‘asana’ that means pose. This asana resembles the fetal position. It is a resting pose that focuses on the thighs and also helps to reduce back pains. If this asana is performed with a full gravitational pull, one can notice a great sense of mental, physical, and emotional balance.


What You Should Know Before You Do This Asana

Like any other yoga asana, this one too must be performed at least four to six hours after a meal. Your stomach must be empty when you practice this position. Being a resting pose, it can be practiced whenever you need to catch your breath or relax, either in the midst of your workout or afterwards.


How To Do Bal-asana
  • Kneel down on the floor and touch your big toes to each other as you sit on your heels. Once you are comfortable, spread your knees hip-width apart. Inhale.
  • Bend forward, and lay your torso between your thighs as you exhale.
  • Now, broaden the sacrum all across the back of the pelvis, and narrow the points of your hip such that they point towards the navel. Settle down on the inner thighs.
  • Stretch the tailbone away from the back of the pelvis as you lift the base of your head slightly away from the back of the neck.
  • Stretch your arms forward and place them in front of you, such that they are in line with your knees. Release the fronts of your shoulder to the floor. You must feel the weight of the front shoulders pulling the blades widely across your back.
  • Since this asana is a resting pose, you can stay in the pose from anywhere between 30 seconds to a few minutes.
  • To release the asana, first stretch the front torso. Then, breathe in and lift from the tailbone while it pushes down into the pelvis.

The Benefits of Bal-asana
  • It helps release tension in the chest, back, and shoulders.
  • his asana is highly recommended, especially if you have a bout of dizziness or fatigue during the day or during your workout.
  • This asana helps to reduce stress and anxiety .
  • It helps to massage and flex the internal organs in the body, keeping them active and supple.
  • This asana helps to stretch and lengthen the spine.
  • If this asana is done with support on the head and the torso, it relieves pain in the lower back and neck.
  • It helps to stretch the ankles, hips, and thighs.
  • It promotes blood circulation all throughout the body.
  • The tendons, muscles, and ligaments in the knee area are thoroughly stretched.
  • It encourages the right way of breathing and calms both the body and the mind

Bhujangasana

The second picture shows the student performing Bhujangasana on International Yoga Day at Mechanical Department of Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic. Pune. This asana gets its name from the Sanskrit words ‘Bhujanga’ that means Cobra and ‘asana’ that means pose. Bhujangasana is also called the Cobra Pose. This energizing backbend resembles the raised hood of a cobra.


What You Should Know Before You Do This Asana

You must make sure to keep your stomach and bowels empty before you practice this asana. Have your meals at least four to six hours before you do the asana so that your food gets digested and there is enough energy for you to expand during the practice. It is best to practice yoga first thing in the morning. But in the event you cannot work out in the morning, it is alright to practice it in the evening.


How To Do Bhujangasana
  • Lie flat on your stomach. Place your hands on the side and ensure that your toes touch each other.
  • Then, move your hands to the front, making sure they are at the shoulder level, and place your palms on the floor.
  • Now, placing your body’s weight on your palms, inhale and raise your head and trunk. Note that your arms should be bent at your elbows at this stage.
  • You need to arch your neck backward in an attempt to replicate the cobra with the raised hood. But make sure your shoulder blades are firm, and your shoulders are away from your ears.
  • Press your hips, thighs, and feet to the floor.
  • Hold the asana for about 15 to 30 seconds while breathing normally. Feel your stomach pressed against the floor. With practice, you should be able to hold the asana for up to two minutes.
  • To release the pose, slowly bring your hands back to the sides. Rest your head on the ground by bringing your forehead in contact with the floor. Place your hands under your head. Then, slowly rest your head on one side and breathe.

The Benefits of The Bhujangasana

These are some amazing benefits of Bhujangasana.

  • It is a deep backbend that makes the spine stronger and more flexible.
  • It also tones the organs that lie in the lower abdomen.
  • It stimulates the digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems.
  • It helps regulate metabolism, thus balancing the weight.
  • It makes the buttocks firm.
  • It gives the lungs, shoulders, chest, and abdomen a good stretch.
  • It works as a great stress release.
  • This asana is known to open up the lungs and the heart.
  • It relieves asthma.


Prof.A.B.Kulkarni & Prof.K.S.Patil

Mechanical Department

Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic





2. Catapult


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A catapult is a ballistic device used to launch a projectile a maximum distance without the using of any other explosive devicesThe word 'catapult' comes from the Latin 'catapulta'


particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines. Although the catapult has been used since ancient times, it has proven to be one of the most effective mechanisms during warfare. Now days the term can apply to devices ranging from a simple hand-held implement (also called a “slingshot” ) to a mechanism for launching aircraft from a ship


The grate event of the catapult was taken in College of polytechnic in Pimpri Chinchwad in 2017 several student was participated in this event this was an inter college event .student enjoyed as well as they understand the importance of this catapult


Modern use

Military

The last large scale military use of catapults was during the trench warfare of World War I. During the early stages of the war, catapults were used to throw  hand grenades  across no man's land into enemy trenches. They were eventually replaced by small mortars.


In the 1840s the invention of vulcanized rubber allowed the making of small hand-held catapults, either improvised from Y-shaped sticks or manufactured for sale; both were popular with children and teenagers. These devices were also known as  slingshots in the USA.


Special variants called aircraft catapults are used to launch planes from land bases and sea carriers when the takeoff runway is too short for a powered takeoff or simply impractical to extend. Ships also use them to launch torpedoes and deploy bombs against submarines.[dubious – discuss] Small catapults, referred to as "traps", are still widely used to launch clay targets into the air in the sport of clay pigeon shooting.


Until recently, catapults were used by thrill-seekers to experience being catapulted through the air. The practice has been discontinued due to fatalities, when the participants failed to land onto the safety net.[37][38]  Human cannonball circus acts use a catapult launch mechanism, rather than gunpowder.


Early launched roller coasters used a catapult system powered by a diesel engine or a dropped weight to acquire their momentum,[40] such as Shuttle Loop installations between 1977-1978. The catapult system for roller coasters has been replaced by flywheels and later linear motors.


Pumpkin chunking is another widely popularized use, in which people compete to see who can launch a pumpkin the farthest by mechanical means (although the world record is held by pneumatic air cannon).


Medieval catapults



Castles and fortified walled cities were common during this period and catapults were used as siege weapons against them. As well as their use in attempts to breach walls, incendiary missiles, or diseased carcasses or garbage could be catapulted over the walls.


Defensive techniques in the middle Ages progressed to a point that rendered catapults largely ineffective. The Viking siege of Paris (885–6 A.D.) "Saw the employment by both sides of virtually every instrument of siege craft known to the classical world, including a variety of catapults", to little effect, resulting in failure.



The most widely used catapults throughout the Middle Ages were as follows:[35]


Ballista


TBallistae were similar to giant crossbows and were designed to work through torsion. The projectiles were large arrows or darts made from wood with an iron tip. These arrows were then shot "along a flat trajectory" at a target. Ballistae were accurate, but lacked firepower compared with that of a mangonel or trebuchet. Because of their immobility, most ballistae were constructed on site following a siege assessment by the commanding military officer.


Springald


The springald's design resembles that of the ballista, being a crossbow powered by tension. The springald's frame was more compact, allowing for use inside tighter confines, such as the inside of a castle or tower, but compromising its power.


Mangonel


This machine was designed to throw heavy projectiles from a "bowl-shaped bucket at the end of its arm". Mangonels were mostly used for “firing various missiles at fortresses, castles, and cities,” with a range of up to 1300 feet. These missiles included anything from stones to excrement to rotting carcasses. Mangonels were relatively simple to construct, and eventually wheels were added to increase mobility.


Onager


Mangonels are also sometimes referred to as Onagers. Onager catapults initially launched projectiles from a sling, which was later changed to a "bowl-shaped bucket". The word Onager is derived from the Greek word onagros for "wild ass", referring to the "kicking motion and force"[35] that were recreated in the Mangonel's design. Historical records regarding onagers are scarce. The most detailed account of Mangonel use is from “Eric Marsden's translation of a text written by Ammianus Marcellius in the 4th Century AD” describing its construction and combat usage.

Mongol warriors using trebuchet to besiege a city


Trebuchet


Trebuchets were probably the most powerful catapult employed in the Middle Ages. The most commonly used ammunition were stones, but "darts and sharp wooden poles" could be substituted if necessary. The most effective kind of ammunition though involved fire, such as "firebrands, and deadly Greek Fire". Trebuchets came in two different designs: Traction, which were powered by people, or Counterpoise, where the people were replaced with "a weight on the short end". The most famous historical account of trebuchet use dates back to the siege of Stirling Castle in 1304, when the army of Edward I constructed a giant trebuchet known as Warwolf, which then proceeded to "level a section of [castle] wall, successfully concluding the siege".


Couillard


A simplified trebuchet, where the trebuchet's single counterweight is split, swinging on either side of a central support post.


Leonardo da Vinci's catapult


Leonardo da Vinci sought to improve the efficiency and range of earlier designs. His design incorporated a large wooden leaf spring as an accumulator to power the catapult.[d] Both ends of the bow are connected by a rope, similar to the design of a bow and arrow. The leaf spring was not used to pull the catapult armature directly; rather the rope was wound around a drum. The catapult armature was attached to this drum which would be turned until enough potential energy was stored in the deformation of the spring. The drum would then be disengaged from the winding mechanism, and the catapult arm would snap around.[Though no records exist of this design being built during Leonardo's lifetime, contemporary enthusiasts have reconstructed it.

Prof.Chetan Chimote

Mechanical Department

Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic





3. Celebration Of International Fruit Day in Mechanical Department And In Orphanage


An International Fruit Day has been celebrated in best Mechanical engineering diploma college in Pimpri Chinchwad on 15 th july 2017 . The aim of celebrating International Fruit Day is to rediscover the importance of fruit in human life. International Fruit Day announced in 2007 and celebrated for the first time at the wall park in Berlin. International Fruit Day annually on 1st July at many places worldwide where people enable it.


The main objectives to celebrate this day :

  • To donate the varieties of fruits to the orphanage by sharing our joy of happiness.
  • To serve the students of orphanage by spending some time with them and to make them aware about the importance of fruits in the life of human being.
  • To aware diploma students about the social responsibity towards the society .

On the occasion of International Fruit Day presentation on facts and importance of fruits in human life has been delivered. And fruits has been donated to orphanage to share fruits in sympathy and joy to benefit to the public interest. 

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International Fruit Day celebration in best
Mechanical engineering diploma college in Pimpri Chinchwad


The “Punruthan Samarsata Gurukulam” is located at Chinchwadgaon ,Pune.It has a strength of near about 350 students studying in first to tenth standard. Gurukulam provides them education and hostality at a single place. The Students at Gurukulam are mainly from communities like Paradhi, Kaikadi, Dombari, Mariaaiwale, Sonzari, Tambat, Aadivasi, Vanvasi, Dalit, Bauddha etc. as well as slum dwellers, child labourers and economically weaker sections living in Pune-Chinchwad area.


The old & wise “Gurukulam Education System” is followed at Gurukulam. In this system, Guru (Teacher) and Shishya (Disciple) live together. The Disciple follows the teacher and learns language, values, and vocational trades and gets knowledge of Indian culture.


Information about fruits:

Fruits are nature's treasure or rather nature's gift to human beings. Fruits are the tastiest of all healthy foods. They are healthy because they contain all the essential nutrients like vitamins, minerals and sugar, that are required by human beings on a regular basis. Fresh fruits, in their natural form, are also easy to digest, as compared to nutritional supplements. Therefore, fruits can be consumed by people of any age group


If you take a look at the botanical definition of fruits, you will note that several vegetables can also be categorized into the 'fruit' group. This is indeed true. There are several vegetables that are botanically fruits. However, here we have mentioned only those that can be traditionally classified into the 'fruits' category.


Types of Fruits:

1. Fleshy fruits


as the name suggests, have a soft pulpy wall, with seeds at the centerFleshy Fruits An apple or a pear are excellent examples of fleshy fruits. It should also be noted that other types of fruits like dried fruits, citrus fruits and melons form a subpart of this larger group of fleshy fruits.

e.g.: apple, apricot , green-olives , papaya, mango


2.Dried Fruits


In simplest words, dried fruits can be defined as fruits that are dried naturally or mechanically in order to remove their original water content

e.g.: almonds , brazil nuts, cashews, dates


3. Citrus Fruits


Citrus fruits are the ones that belong to the genus 'Citrus'. They are acidic, juicy and usually have a sharp taste. Citrus fruits also have detoxifying properties, and hence, are used in some detoxification diet plans like the Master Cleanse (lemonade diet).

e.g.: clementine , grapefruit , kumquat , lime, lemon


4. Melons


melon belong to the same family, i.e., gourds. Watermelon, cantaloupe, etc. are examples of melons, which are categorized as fruits. Melons are also classified into the broad category of fleshy fruits because they have an edible pulpy flesh

e.g.: cantaloupe, honeydew melon , squash , watermelon


5. Multiple Fruits


Multiple fruits are called so because they are developed from multiple flowers.One of the classic examples of multiple flowers is pineapple. Some berries like the strawberry also belong to this category of fruits

e.g.: bread fruit , custard apple , jack fruit , pineapple , osage-orange


6. Berries


Berries also belong to the larger group of fruits, i.e., fleshy fruits as they have a pulpy flesh. However, scientifically speaking, berries are fruits that have a pulpy flesh with one or more seeds embedded in it. In that case, a tomato or a banana is also considered as a berry.

e.g.: Bearberrie, blueberries , blackberries , boysenberries , cranberry , gooseberry , grapes


7. Miscellaneous Fruits


Here are some miscellaneous fruits with pictures that can be categorized into either of the above-mentioned categories. For example, the banana is a fleshy fruit, while blackcurrant, crowberries and goji berries are berries

e.g.: banana , black current , coconut , passion fruit , crowberries , passion fruit


Fruit Facts:

  • A strawberry is not an actual berry.
  • Orangutans love mangoes.
  • Apples float in water because they are 25% air.
  • Tomatoes are a fruit not a vegetable. Tomatoes are the most popular fruits in the world.
  • Bananas have a natural antacid effect in the body, so if you suffer from heartburn, try eating a banana for soothing relief.
  • An average strawberry has around 200 seeds.
  • Oranges contain antioxidants that help fight the free radicals that damage and age our skin
  • Pumpkins and avocados are fruits not a vegetable.
  • Kiwi contains twice as much Vitamin C as an orange
  • Bilberries are supposed to help improve nighttime vision.

Benefits of Fruits before Meal
  • They are high in fiber, minerals, and contain natural sugars.
  • They are also loaded with vitamins, antioxidants, and are low in calories

Helps in Weight Management
  • The fiber present in fruits makes you feel fuller
  • Shut off the hunger signal to the stomach
  • Boosts the metabolism & helps in weight loss

Stimulate the Digestive Tract
  • Enzymes, fiber and prebiotics in fruits
  • Stimulates the digestive juices in the stomach
  • Cleanse the colon
  • Aids in digestion

Banish Belly Bloating
  • Belly bloating is a condition in which stomach feels uncomfortably full
  • Fibre in fruits push out the waste matter from digestive tract
  • Helps in lowering the bloated belly

Regulates Blood Sugar Level
  • Fruits are rich in fiber
  • Fiber helps to slow down the absorption of sugar in the blood
  • Peaches, apricots, apple, pear, berries are considered as diabetes friendly fruits
  • Fruits like blueberries help in reducing insulin resistance

Maintains Healthy Skin
  • Taking fruits before a meal helps in the detoxification process leads to healthy skin
  • Vitamin C present in fruits act as anti-oxidant provides radiant to the skin
  • Fruits like strawberries, papaya are rich in Vitamin-A which helps to achieve glowing skin

Boost Immune System
  • Citrus fruits are rich in vitamin C & antioxidants
  • Fight off any invading bacteria and microbes that may cause diseases

Taking fruits before meal detoxify your system and release toxins leads to healthy immune system.


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Fruit donation to orphans by staff and students


In this way by celebration of international fruit day is very fruitful to make students aware about importance of fruits in their life and about their social responsibility towards society.




Prof.N.U.Patil & Prof.M.R.Zade

Mechanical Department

Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic





4. CAMLESS ENGINE


INTRODUCTION


The cam has been an integral part of the IC engine from its invention. The cam controls the breathing channels of the IC engines, that is, the valves through which the fuel air mixture (in SI engines) or air (in CI engines) is supplied and exhaust driven out and all this General working of engine is discussed in Best polytechnic college. Besieged by demands for better fuel economy, more power, and less pollution, motor engineers around the world are pursuing a radical camless design that promises to deliver the internal combustion engines biggest efficiency improvement in years. The aim of all this effort is liberation from a constraint that has handcuffed performance since the birth of the internal-combustion engine more than a century ago. Camless engine technology is soon to be a reality for commercial vehicles. In the camless valve train, the valve motion is controlled directly by a valve actuator there is no camshaft or connecting mechanisms. Precise electro hydraulic camless valve train controls the valve operations, opening, closing etc.


AN OVERVIEW OF CAMLESS ENGINE


To eliminate the cam, camshaft and other connected mechanisms, the Camless engine makes use of three vital components the sensors, the electronic control unit and the actuator. Mainly five sensors are used in connection with the valve operation. One for sensing the speed of the engine, one for sensing the load on the engine, exhaust gas sensor, valve position sensor and current sensor. The sensors will send signals to the electronic control unit. The electronic control unit consists of a microprocessor, which is provided with a software algorithm. This system is similar to EFI system which is studied in top polytechnic college in pune.


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TYPES OF CAMLESS VALVE TRAIN

  • Electromechanical Poppet Valves
  • Electrohydraulic Poppet Valve
  • Hydraulic Pendulum

WORKING OF HYDRAULIC PENDULUM


The Electro hydraulic Camless valve train, (EC) provides continuously variable control of engine valve timing, lift, and velocity. It uses neither cams nor springs. It exploits the elastic properties of a compressed hydraulic fluid, which, acting as a liquid spring, accelerates and decelerates each engine valve during its opening and closing motions. This is the principle of the hydraulic pendulum. Like a mechanical pendulum, the hydraulic pendulum involves conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy and, then, back into potential energy with minimal energy loss. During acceleration, potential energy of the fluid is converted into kinetic energy of the valve. During deceleration, the energy of the valve motion is returned to the fluid. This takes place both during valve opening and closing. Recuperation of kinetic energy is the key to the low energy consumption of this system. Figure illustrates the hydraulic pendulum concept. The system incorporates high and low - pressure reservoirs. A small double-acting piston is fixed to the top of the engine valve that rides in a sleeve. The volume above the piston can be connected either to a high- or a low-pressure source. The volume below the piston is constantly connected to the high-pressure source. The pressure area above the piston is significantly larger than the pressure area below the piston. The engine valve opening is controlled by a high pressure solenoid valve that is open during the engine valve acceleration and closed during deceleration. Opening and closing of a low -pressure solenoid valve controls the valve closing. The system also includes high and low-pressure check valves.


Detailed view of hydraulic pendulum

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During the valve opening, the high-pressure solenoid valve is open, and the net pressure force pushing on the double-acting piston accelerates the engine valve downward. When the solenoid valve closes, pressure above the piston drops, and the piston decelerates pushing the fluid from the lower volume back into the high-pressure reservoir. Low-pressure fluid flowing through the low-pressure check valve fills the volume above the piston during deceleration. When the downward motion of the valve stops, the check valve closes, and the engine valve remains locked in open position. The process of the valve closing is similar, in principle, to that of the valve opening. The low-pressure solenoid valve opens, the pressure above the piston drops to the level in the low pressure reservoir, and the net pressure force acting on the piston accelerates the engine valve upward. Then the solenoid valve closes, pressure above the piston rises, and the piston decelerates pushing the fluid from the volume above it through the high-pressure check valve back into the high-pressure reservoir. The hydraulic pendulum is a spring less system. Figure shows idealized graphs of acceleration, velocity and valve lift versus time for the hydraulic pendulum system. Thanks to the absence of springs, the valve moves with constant acceleration and deceleration. This permits to perform the required valve motion with much smaller net driving force, than in systems which use springs. The advantage is further amplified by the fact that in the spring less system the engine valve is the only moving mechanical mass. To minimize the constant driving force in the hydraulic pendulum the opening and closing accelerations and decelerations must be equal (symmetric pendulum).


DESIGN APPROACH FOR CAMLESS ENGINE


The camless engine was created on the basis of an existing four cylinder, four-valve engine. The original cylinder head with all the valves, springs, camshafts, etc. was replaced by a new cylinder head assembly fully integrated with the camless valve train. The camshaft drive was eliminated, and a belt-driven hydraulic pump was added. There was no need for lubrication, and the access for engine oil from the engine block to the cylinder head was closed off. No other changes to the engine have been made.


COMPONENTS OF CAMLESS ENGINE


Main components of a camless engine are-Engine valve, solenoid valve, high pressure pump, low pressure pump, cool down accumulator, etc.


Solenoid Valve

The solenoid has conically shaped magnetic poles. This reduces the air gap at a given stroke. The normally-closed valve is hydraulically balanced during its movement. Only a slight unbalance exists in the fully open and the fully-closed positions. A strong spring is needed to obtain quick closing time and low leakage between activations. The hydraulic energy loss is the greatest during the closing of either the high- or the low-pressure solenoid, because it occurs during the highest piston velocity. Thus, the faster the solenoid closure, the better the energy recovery. The valve lift and the seat diameter are selected to minimize the hydraulic loss with a large volume of fluid delivered during each opening. Both high-pressure and low-pressure solenoid valves are of the same design


Unequal Lift Modifier


To enhance the ability to vary the intake air motion in the engine cylinder, it is often desirable to have unequal lift of the two intake valves, or even to keep one of the two valves closed while the other opens. In some cases it may also be used for paired exhaust valves. The lift modifier is then used to restrict the opening of one the paired valves. The rod is installed in the cylinder head between the two intake valves. A cut out in the rod forms a communication chamber connected to the volumes below the hydraulic pistons of both intake valves. The communication chamber is always connected to the high pressure reservoir.


ADVANTAGES

  • Enables the development of higher torque throughout the entire rev range which in turn improves fuel economy.
  • Cylinder Deactivation can be achieved during the idling phase.
  • Exhaust gas recirculation is improved.
  • Reduces friction losses.
  • Reduces the inertia of moving parts

Conclusion

  • Even though some disadvantages are present, we can expect electro hydraulic & electromechanical valves to replace the conventional camshaft technology.



Prof. Shanteshwar Dhanure

Mechanical Department

Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic





5. COGENERATION /COMBINED HEAT AND POWER


Mature technologies are now available for the combined production of electricity and heat (cogeneration). They can use fossil or nuclear energy carriers, as well as biomass .In a proper comparison (serving the same energy needs through both alternatives), cogeneration uses 15-20% less energy, and contributes an equivalent amount of emission reductions, compared to the production of electricity and heat in separate facilities, i.e. a thermal power plant and a modern boiler this concept is taught in best mechanical diploma engineering college in pune . In this case, the comparison needs to be based on the same fuel. When cogeneration is combined with a fuel switch – from coal to gas, the impact of switching fuel is more important than the impact of cogeneration, due to the favorable characteristics of gas compared to coal.


The advantage of cogeneration also decreases with higher efficiency of future power plants .Cogeneration is above all meaningful for applications where there is a large and continuous(not just seasonal) demand for heat close to the cogeneration facility. If there is no demand for heat from a cogeneration facility, its efficiency for the production of electricity will be lower than for optimized thermal power stations. Larger cogeneration facilities have in general lower production costs than smaller units. But on the other hand, transport of heat to users takes longer and is more expensive .Cogeneration provides 6% of heat in Germany. Each year, about 55 TWh2 is produced.


Cogeneration – the concept


Cogeneration means the combined production of electricity and heat in an energy conversion facility. Technically, it means that part of the heat (steam or hot air)energy for the production of electricity in steam or gas turbines, or residual heat from combustion engine or fuel cell is used for room heating or as process heat in industry or commerce .Basically the cogeneration principle could be used in any generation facility .It makes only sense though, when there is demand of heat .The heat demand should be large ,and continues over long part of the year.


Cogeneration/ Combined heat and power plant

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Cogeneration techniques


A broad range of mature technologies is available for cogeneration. They can use all energy carriers, from biomass or hydrogen in small facilities, such as mini-CHP units and fuel cells, to coal and nuclear energy in facilities of any desired size.


Advantages of cogeneration


The advantage of the combined production of heat and power

  • It results from the more efficient use of fuel, and corresponding reductions in the emissions of SO2, NOx.
  • It provides fuel economy .Electricity obtained by industries through cogeneration consumes only about a half of the fuel (coal oil of gas) that a conventional power station needs to generate it .Fuel efficiency is of 60-70 %.
  • Indirect benefit flowing from fuel economy includes saving of transportation cost of fuel. 4. It helps in reduced pollution.
  • It is the source of conservation of fuel.
  • As it uses wasted thermal energy it is the convenient way of improving energy efficiency.
  • Cogeneration requires simpler equipment due to usage of lower temperature and pressure ,and almost completely removes transmission and distribution .hence it output is too less harmful to interruption than the grid .Voltage of supply can also be much better controlled

Meaningful applications of cogeneration


Meaningful applications can be found primarily where electricity production can be combined with a long-term stable and constant heat production, that is competitive in the heat market. Such production also contributes to the demand for electricity, which varies as well throughout the year, but to a lower extent than heat. Applications for cogeneration vary according to heat demand, the temperature of the heat required, and its variation over time .Two typical application domains for cogeneration have emerged: the combined heat & power (CHP) plant in industry, and the heat and power sector in the electricity supply(’municipal heat and power supply’). The latter produces mainly low-temperature heat for heating and hot water supply in buildings. In addition, block heat and power plants with ratings of a few kW to a few MW are becoming relatively important


Development of cogeneration in industry


More promising are the conditions for the development of cogeneration in industry. The reducing heat demand in this sector is compensated by 2 factors: by the higher technical potential of cogeneration compared to the heat demand in industry, related to higher fuel prices, and by the high utilization related to a heat demand all year round. Higher CHP coefficients provide an additional driving force.


Sugar Industry

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Development decentralized cogeneration systems


A lot is expected from decentralized cogeneration in smaller facilities, such as block heat and power plants, and fuel cells, for use in industry as well as small applications (households ,commerce, public facilities). The advantage here is the elimination, or strong reduction of costs for heat transport, as well as avoided costs for using the grid. Disadvantages are the significantly higher investment costs, as well as fuel, operating and maintenance costs, and the lower efficiency for electricity production in relatively small units.


Development of cogeneration for space heating


The technical possibility exists to fully cover the demand for low temperature heat ( up to 100 degrees) by cogeneration. The extent to which this theoretical potential can be exploited depends on whether the combined production of heat and electricity, compared to separate production, results in economic, energy or ecological advantages.


Space heating/cooling

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Cost of cogeneration compared to separate production


Large cogeneration plants in the range of a few 100 Megawatt (MW) using coal or natural gas are capable to produce electricity at lower costs, despite their higher investment costs, if they can lower their fuel costs through realising their energy efficiency advantage. This advantage needs to be weighed against the cost of heat transport, which has a strong impact in the case of district heating. This applies particularly for the construction of new district heating networks. In large areas, this can lead to high start-up losses, due to protracted development of new connections. These effects can reduce, or even eliminate the economic advantage of lower heat production cost.




Prof. Pragati Ambekar

Mechanical Department

(Second Shift)

Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic








6. Student Quality circle in best diploma Mechanical engineering department in Pune


Student Quality circle works on variety of issues in Mechanical Department of Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic,Which is one of best polytechnic in Pune. The Student quality circle is professional practice activity which is included in the fifth semester syllabus. For improving the vocabulary of diploma engg student we conducted activity “B-Vocab’’ Students performing Root cause analysis for “Poor vocabulary of Diploma Engineering Students’ for the student Quality circle in best diploma Mechanical department Pimpri chinchwad Polytechnic .B-Vocab Activity is performed under SQC by third year students of best diploma polytechnic college in pune


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Cause & Effect Diagram / IshikawaDiagram / FishBone Diagram


Students’ Quality Circles (SQC) As Approach to Prepare Total Quality Person Introducing SQC as a curricular Activity in Pimpri chinchwad Polytechnic which is the best diploma college in pune.Students’ Quality Circles A curricular activities in best diploma mechanical engineering for developing leadership personality of students . Students identify, analyze and solve their respective problems Students learn with joy while developing their leadership personality.


How to initiate Quality Circles


A ‐curricular activity of the Pimpri chinchwad polytechnic Mechanical Department in which a SMALL group of VOLUNTEER students (4‐10) of the meets REGULARLY in their practical’s forms a group .Select a problem for their improvements and find a solution for that problem with a case study

  • IDENTIFY, ANALYZE & SOLVE their problems y for their SELF & MUTUAL development
  • In the process of SQC activity, the role of teachers is only to train and facilitate students. Students identify, analyze, solve and prepare presentation themselves .
  • Teachers fix the schedule, venue, logistics required, and brief counseling if students stuck on their process
  • students of fifth semester best diploma mechanical engineering college will do
    • brainstorming
    • systematic problem solving tools and techniques and basic tools of quality circle
    • Maintain a record of the circle meetings

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Process of Student Quality Circle


Basic QC Tools


  • Check Sheet
  • Graphs and Charts
  • Pareto Diagram
  • Cause and Effect Diagram
  • Histogram
  • Control Chart
  • Scatter Diagram

SQC Case Study Report Preparation & Presentation


Students of fifth semester mechanical in engg department have prepared case study on different quality circle topic poor vocabulary of diploma engg Students. and the have presented their case studies in the class .

  • B
  • V
  • O
  • C
  • A
  • B

Students for improving the vocabulary of diploma engg students do a case study under B-Vocab In these students from quality circle will display daily questions on the basis of English vocabulary and students from mechanical dept will solve the question and submit it in the box placed in the mechanical department. The answers are checked and one lucky winner is selected from the correct answers and name of the winner is displayed on the next day along with next question. On the basis of answers given the students are analyzed on the vocabulary lacunas and concerned students are encouraged to improve their vocabulary. Student quality circle group use different QC tools and prepare a case study.





Prof S.M.Sable

Mechanical Department

Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic






7. Recent Advancements in CNC


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In today’s world Technology is rapidly changing, to sustain in this race our institute provides the training on the CNC and VMC. These machines are more advanced and are best machines. This training is done in this best diploma college in pune region.


Let’s talk about the CNC. This concept of CNC is credited to John Person. He invent first NC control machine which is operated on the punched tape. First NC machine is manufactured in 1952 a three axis hydrotel milling machine. After that new class of machines called machining center that perform multiple machining operations was developed.

Based on the need for more complex and sophisticated aircraft parts, the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) concept was first introduced to advance the machineries in the aircraft industries shortly after World War II. The CNC process is used by the manufacturing sector to control a machine or a tool using a programmable computer. Today, CNC machining is widespread; it dominates the manufacturing sector, allowing for a considerable jump in productivity around the world. With the advancement of CNC technology, we have seen many advancements applied beyond the CNC industry, such as simplified programming language, improved engine communications, and customization. As CNC technology continues to evolve, we can say without a doubt that the most exciting progression of CNC is yet to come.

The Integration of the best of Two Worlds

Due to the nature of the concept, CNC programs used to be limited to only control the CNC machines that aid manufacturing processes throughout history. As time has passed, manufacturers have moved towards having a centralized system such as Enterprise Resources Planning software to manage resources and to track the productivity of machines. The next step that manufacturers are looking to embrace is to adopt an increasingly interconnected system that will streamline CNC machines with other machines and procedures. Commonly, CNC machines and manufacturing robots are closely paired in the manufacturing line due CNC’s strength in processing raw materials and robots’ capability in moving and packing produced goods. Thus, there are numerous attempts and collaborations between CNC developers, machine buildings, and robot manufacturers to create a simpler programming languages and better interaction between CNC machines and robots. For example, collaboration with CNC developers Siemens and robotic supplier KUKA has produced an interface that allows CNC operator to control both CNC machines and robots from a single control panel. With many more collaborations to come, it is exciting to see the progress that will elevate efficiency in utilizing the CNC.

Parts and Tools for All

Another notable advancement is the personalization of CNC Machining. Over the years, CNC 3D printers have made prominent progress, allowing individuals to tailor make any simple part like a square board to a complex tool such as a circuit board. This astonishing development is accompanied by a drastic cost decrease that enables the general population to acquire new technology or machines at low prices. Furthermore, as the technology advances, the size of a CNC 3D printer has also shrunk to the extent that it could now be placed inside a working space comfortably. With this technological breakthrough, individuals can now product customized tools with cost effectiveness at the comfort of their office or home; the progress in CNC 3D printing will forever alter industries around the world.


CNC is applied in various machineries

Milling

CNC Milling machine use computer control to cut the different materials. They are able to translate the various programs includes alphabets and numbers to move the spindle to various locations and depths. CNC milling performs many functions like face milling, end milling, tapping, drilling, slotting, blind hole drilling etc. Some CNC milling having 3 axes movement (X, Y and Z) and some have the one or more than one rotational axis which allows it for 3D printing

Lathes

CNC Lathes are cut the work piece when it is rotating. They are used to cut material at faster rate By using the indexable tools and drills. They can make apart at faster rates and with greater accuracy than conventional lathe. The lathe have same control specifications like CNC Milling but CNC lathe can operates in only two axes (X and Z),New models have more advancements for faster production and complicated profile


Non-conventional machining process

There are number of nonconventional machining process which are combines with the CNC to give more advancement in the manufacturing


CNC Plasma Machine

Plasma is used to cut materials like steel and other metals. In this machining plasma is formed by the heating the gas with the help of electric arc and melt the metal by high temp to perform machining. Now a days this process is combined and used with the CNC for the better accuracy. In many Fabrication plants uses this set up to cut the steel sheets at very faster rates.


CNC operated water jet cutters

In this the water jet matching is combined with the CNC to get the complicated parts with the better accuracy.Now a days some abrasive particles are added to the water jet to get the high material removal rate (MRR). This machining process is used to the high heat sensitive materials also used in the manufacturing machine parts aerospace machinery parts. CNC is applied to the many other non-conventional machining process like Electric Discharge Machining (EDM), Wire Cut Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM), LASER Beam Machining (LBM), Electron Beam Machining (EBM) and much more. There use is depends upon the material properties and product required.

CNC has revolutionized the manufacturing process worldwide, allowing for mass productions of goods and trades. We, at the Polytechnic pimpri chinchwad, believe that there are still many unknown and necessary CNC advancements that will once again change the way industries progress in the future. With unlimited possibilities, with the high and steady demand for CNC professionals, we believe that we are experiencing one of the best times for the CNC industry as a career. If you’re looking to start a career in CNC, start today by contacting our Institute PimpriChinchwad Polytechnic




Prof. Nilesh Bargaje

Mechanical Department(Second Shift)

Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic





8. Orthographic Projection and Isometric Drawing Orthographic Projection


Orthographic Projection is to observe a 3-Dimensional object in a perpendicular direction and the representation of this 3-Dimensional object in to a 2-Dimensional drawing on drawing sheet or drawing paper.


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It is a form of parallel projection in which all the projection lines are orthogonal to the projection planeresulting in every plane of the scene appearing in affine transformation on the viewing surface. The obverse of an orthographic projection is an oblique projection, which is a parallel projection in which the projection lines are not orthogonal to the projection plane.In Engineering Graphics, the projection of one face of an object usually will not provide an overall description of the object; other planes of projection must be used. To create the necessary 2D views, the point of sight is changed to project different views of the same object; hence, each view is from a different point of sight. If the point of sight is moved to the front of the object, this will result in the front view of the object. And then move the point of sight to the top of the object and looking down at the top, and then move to the right side of the object, as the case may be. Each additional view requires a new point of sight.

Planes of Orthographic Projection

1. HP (Horizantal Plane)- It is the reference plane of projection shows the top view of an object.

2. VP (Vertical Plane)-It is the reference plane of projection shows front view of an object.

3. Auxolary Plane.-It is the extra plane of projection shows the view of an object, the views are not shown in HP and VP.


Four Quadrant System:

In Orthographic Projection the 3-dimensional object is lies in quadrant system, in this system there are four quadrants but our syllabus only first and third quadrant system is used for projections. the second and fourth are not used because when we are convert the 3-dimensional object in to a 2-dimensional drawing at that time the HP plane is rotate 900 in

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Clockwise direction then HP and VP are overlap or interconnected that’s why we are not used second and fourth quadrant system.

After completing of this topic students should able to know what is mean by orthographic projection. we are clear this topic and basic concepts related to this topic in our college Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic Nigdi it is the topmost college in pune division.


Methods of Projection

SR.NO

First Angle Projection

Third Angle Projection

1

Object lies in 1st quadrant

Object lies in 3rd quadrant.

2

F.V lies on above XY line.

FV lies on below XY line.

3

TV lies on below XY line.

TV lies on above XY line.

4

LHSV lies right of the FV.

LHSV lies left of the FV.

5

RHSV lies left of the FV

RHSV lies right of the FV.

6

Used in INDIA.

Used in ASIAN Countries.


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Isometric Drawing

Engineering Graphics is the language of engineers. The concepts of Engineering Graphics are used to develop, express the ideas, and convey the instructions which are used to carry out jobs in the field Engineering. The course illustrates the techniques of graphics in actual practice. This preliminary course aims at building a foundation for the further course in drawing and other allied subjects. This subject is useful in developing drafting and sketching skills of students. Develop ability to differentiate between isometric view and isometric projections. Isometric drawings are a type of pictorial drawings that show the three principal dimensions of an object in one view. The principal dimensions are the limits of size for the object along the three principal directions. Pictorial drawings consist of visible object faces and the features lying on the faces with the internal features of the object largely hidden from view. They tend to present images of objects in a form that mimics what the human eye would see naturally. Pictorial drawings are easy to understand since the images shown bear resemblance to the real or imagined object. Non-technical personnel can interpret them because they are generally easy to understand. Pictorial drawings are excellent starting point in visualization and design and are often used to supplement multiview drawings. Hidden lines are usually omitted in pictorial drawings, except where they aid clarity. An isometric drawing is one of three types of axonometric drawings they are created based on parallel projection technique. The other two types of axonometric drawings are dimetric and trimetric drawings. In isometric drawings, the three principal axes make equal angles with the image plane. In dimetric drawing, two of the three principal axes make equal angles with the image plane while in trimetric drawing; the three principal axes make different angles with the image plane. Isometric drawings are the most popular.


Isometric Projection and Scale

There are number of nonconventional machining process which are combines with the CNC to give more advancement in the manufacturing

Isometric Projections-

It is the type of axonometric projections, representation of a 2-Dimenstional drawing in to 3-Dimensional object. An isometric projection is a representation of a view of an object at 35o 16’ elevation and 45o azimuth. The principal axes of projection are obtained by rotating a cube through 45o about a vertical axis, then tilting it downward at 35o 16’ (35.27o) as shown in Fig. 1a. A downward tilt of the cube shows the top face while an upward tilt shows the bottom face. The 45o rotation is measured on a horizontal plane while the 35o 16’ angle is measured on a vertical plane. The combined rotations make the top diagonal of the cube to appear as a point in the front view. The nearest edge of the cube to the viewer appears vertical in the isometric view. The two receding axes project from the vertical at 120o on the left and right sides of the vertical line as shown in Fig. 1b. The three principal axes are therefore inclined at 120o and are parallel to the cube edges in the isometric view. These three principal axes are known as isometric axes. The two receding axes are inclined at 30o to the horizontal line while the vertical axis is at 90o to the horizontal line. The three visible faces of the cube are on three planes called isometric planes or isoplanes. The Lines in an object parallel to the isometric axes are referred to as isometric lines while lines not parallel to them are known as non-isometric lines. Isometric projection is not the most pleasant to the human eye but it is easy to draw and dimension.


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Types of Isometric Projections-


1. Isometric View (True Scale)-

Isometric View (True Scale)-Isometric view is the type of isometric projections to draw the isometric drawing by using true scale of the drawing.

2. Isometric Projections(Isometric scale)-

Isometric Projection is the type of isometric projections to draw the isometric drawing by using isometric scale of the drawing.

Difference between the these two types of isometric projection is that the isometric view is drawn by the true dimensions menas drawing drawn at 300 and isometric projection is drawn by isometric scale means first the true dimensions is take on 450 then these dimensions are take on 300 angle and draw the isometric drawing.On the behalf of above subject the orthographic projection and isometric projection on this topic our college PIMPRI CHINCHWAD POLYTECHNIC NIGDI it is TOP COLLEGES IN PUNE region organize the technical event every year of a academic calendar .




Prof.T.V.Inde

Mechanical Department

Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic






9. SAP Training Program at Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic


SAP SE, a global software company, is one of the largest vendors of ERP and other enterprise applications. The company is headquartered in Walldorf, Germany.

According to its 2016 corporate fact sheet, SAP serves more than 335,000 customers in 190 countries, of which 80% are small- and-medium sized businesses (SMB). The latter fact is a more recent departure from the company's previous focus on large organizations.

SAP's SE system enables companies to run their business processes, be they accounting, sales, production, human resources or payment, in an integrated environment. The integration ensures that information flows from one SAP component to another without the need for redundant data entry, and it helps enforce financial, process and legal controls. SAP's ERP system also facilitates effective utilization of resources (the R in ERP), be it machines, production capacities, manpower or other assets of an enterprise (the E in ERP) through detailed planning (the P in ERP) of resources.

The SAP Training Program was takes place for diploma students of second year and third year at best Mechanical diploma engg college in Pune.

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SAP Training Program at Best Mechanical diploma engg college in Pimpri Chinchwad


History of SAP

  • SAP was started in 1972 by five former ,IBM employees in Mannheim, Germany. The original name for SAP, Systeme, Anwendungen, Produkte, is German for "Systems, Applications and Products." The original idea for SAP was to provide customers with the ability to interact with a common corporate database for a comprehensive range of applications in real time.
  • In 1973, SAP released R/1, a financial accounting system. R/1 ran on IBM servers and DOS, and it had a single-tier architecture in which presentation, applications and data were on one platform.
  • In 1979, SAP released R/2, a mainframe system that provided real-time data processing across accounting, manufacturing, supply chain and human resources. R/2 used a two-tier architecture, where presentation was on one platform and applications and data were on another. R/2 helped power SAP's growth, and the vendor expanded its customer base to about 200 companies.
  • In 1992, SAP released R/3, which represented a switch from mainframe computing to the client-server model, and from a two-tier to a three-tier architecture, in which presentation, applications and data were housed separately. R/3 was a critical product for SAP that launched the company onto the world stage.
  • In 1999, SAP launched mySAP, which marked a new strategy for the company of focusing on combining e-commerce software with the applications in R/3. One year after R/3's release, SAP partnered with Microsoft to port the new version to Windows NT. By 1997, SAP employed 13,000 people.
  • In 2004, the company launched SAP Net Weaver, and it reported that more than 1,000 customers acquired the application development platform that year. Also in 2004, the successor to R/3, the SAP ERP system (or SAP ECC, for SAP ERP Central Component) was released. Customers already using R/2 or R/3 were still supported, but new customers were required to implement SAP ERP. By 2005, SAP was generating $8.5 billion, with upwards of 35,800 employees around the globe.
  • In 2006, the company claimed hefty revenue from SAP Business All-in-One and SAP Business One, its SAP ERP systems for SMBs.
  • In 2009, SAP Business Suite 7 became available to customers worldwide. At the time, SAP called it "the company's next-generation software suite enabled by service-oriented architecture,/."
  • In 2011, the company launched SAP HANA, an in-memory database platform. HANA was a major development project for SAP, and an important new strategic direction for the vendor, which has said it intends HANA to take the place of the traditional databases SAP has used for its business applications. SAP has offered HANA as a deployment option for Business Suite, and, in 2015, released S/4HANA, an ambitious rewrite of Business Suite optimized for the HANA platform.
  • As of this writing, Bill McDermott is CEO of SAP, a position he has held since May 2014. In the four years prior, McDermott was co-CEO with Jim Hagemann Snabe. Meanwhile, company co-founder Hasso Plattner is a member of the SAP Supervisory Board and continues to help lead the technology strategy for the company.

List of SAP modules and developing products

The SAP ERP system, or SAP ECC, is the collective term for SAP's functional and technical modules that enable enterprises to manage business processes through a unified system. ECC is the on-premises version of SAP, and it is usually implemented in medium and large-sized companies. For smaller companies, SAP offers its Business One ERP platform.

SAP ERP has different main modules, which are separated into functional modules and technical modules, each of which has sub modules.


SAP's functional modules include:

  • Human Capital Management (HCM)
  • Production Planning (PP)
  • Materials Management (MM)
  • Project System (PS)
  • Sales and Distribution (SD)
  • Plant Maintenance (PM)
  • Financial Accounting (FI)
  • Quality Management (QM)
  • Controlling (CO)

SAP also has cross-application components, which can be implemented with any of the main modules.


Some of the cross-application components are:


SAP technical modules include:


Further, SAP also has industry-specific applications that support business processes unique to a particular industry. Some of these applications are:

    • SAP for Utilities
    • SAP for Insurance
    • SAP for Oil and Gas
    • SAP Healthcare

    SAP Business Suite is a bundle of business applications that provides integration of business and processes, as well as industry-focused functionality. It has SAP ERP as its foundation, plus modules for customer relationship management, product lifecycle management, supply chain management and ,supplier relationship management. SAP customers can choose to run Business Suite on SAP HANA, its in-memory platform for processing large volumes of data in real time.


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    SAP Training Program at Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic


    In this way SAP Training Program was arranged at Best polytechnic college in Maharashtra Which is Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic




    Prof Y.D.Kale

    Prof B.A.Pawal

    Mechanical Department(Second Shift)

    Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic






    10. Spoken Tutorial training session at Best Mechanical diploma engg college in Pune


    What is Spoken Tutorial?


    The Spoken Tutorial project is the initiative of the ‘Talk to a Teacher’ activity of the National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT), launched by the Ministry of Human Resources and Development, Government of India. The use of spoken tutorials to popularize software development and its use will be coordinated through this website.

    (The Spoken Tutorial project is being developed by IIT Bombay for MHRD, Government of India) it is officially launched on January 26, 2010. www.spoken-tutorial.org is the official website of Spoken Tutorial Project.

    Our Objective:

    As we know that seeing and hearing someone has great impact on explaining a process greatly improves understanding. This can be achieved through top diploma college such as Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic, Pune which is Best Mechanical diploma engg college in pimpri chinchwad. On this site, you will find a variety of spoken tutorials that will help you to learn and use free open source software.

    Since this is a community based site, we welcome your contributions. Have a topic, script or video for a spoken tutorial? Upload them on our site. We are also promoting translations of these tutorials into different languages. Once your tutorials are reviewed by experts, they will be hosted on our site and will become part of the public domain, thus benefitting all who are interested in it.

    We also conduct software training workshops using spoken tutorials in Best Mechanical Diploma Engineering college in Pimpri Chinchwad and gave certificates to those who passes an online test. For more details, please write to contact [at] spoken-tutorial [dot] org.


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    During session in Mechanical Dept.


    About SELF Trainings

    The Spoken Tutorial Project is about teaching and learning a particular FOSS (Free and Open Source Software) like Linux, Scilab, LaTeX, PHP & MySQL, Java, C/C++, LibreOffice etc. via an easy Video tool - Spoken Tutorials. Some of the salient features of SELF (Spoken Tutorial based Education and Learning through Free FOSS study in Best Mechanical diploma Engineering college in Pimpri Chinchwad ) are as follows.

    1. This distance education method is highly conducive to self-learning.

    2. Once one gets started any student or faculty can master the FOSS and also get certificates, Silver/Learner's and Gold/Completion (based on clearing an assessment test)

    3. UG, PG or Research scholar students and even teachers of Science, IT, Engineering, Commerce, Management, MCA disciplines can learn any of the FOSS.

    4. Typically, the first Training at any college is of 2 hours duration. Timing is per the group's convenience.

    5. To start of, any college which is organising the Training needs to get a computer lab ready with machines that support sound. There is no lower or upper limit on the number of participants. This just depends on the number of computers available. For additional participants, laptops if available can be used.

    6. Support from IIT Bombay is available over Skype, in such cases the main organiser's computer should have a webcam via which the Spoken Tutorial team can monitor the Training and answer questions.

    Plasma is used to cut materials like steel and other metals. In this machining plasma is formed by the heating the gas with the help of electric arc and melt the metal by high temp to perform machining. Now a days this process is combined and used with the CNC for the better accuracy. In many Fabrication plants uses this set up to cut the steel sheets at very faster rates.

    7. If the participants wish to take the test they must do so a month after the Training.

    As a first step, the organiser typically a faculty member must register on the Spoken Tutorial site and become authorised to request and conduct training in his/her college. The organiser can also identify student volunteers to publicise and help with the Training. Students have a lot of energy and are very enthusiastic about such activities. Student volunteers get a special certificate, and a T-shirt! They also develop Event management and Project coordination skills.

    All of the above mean a big deal to students for their career with recruiters and at PG interviews.

    Today, SMEs and Govt. departments are moving to Open Source Software like Linux OS. Students with this knowledge will have an edge in the job market. They can also become entrepreneurs and use Open Source Software in their businesses, and save money vs., if they were using commercial software. Net - it is a win-win situation for all. We are having a very good experience with colleges across the length and breadth of India with this format. They start with one and move to cover more batches, more departments, different FOSS series....All working together to Bridge the Digital Divide in our nation.

    See the Documents given below to know about all the courses we offer and how easy it is to avail of this training and also get an idea on all the wonderful benefits to students.

    Click here Information on Training PPT

    Use the above PPT to motivate and train your faculty.

    Click here E-Brochure

    See the pdf given below for information on which Spoken-tutorial software is suited for which department.

    Click here Sample Time Table Mapped with ST courses - Engineering

    Click here Sample Time Table Mapped with ST courses - Arts/Science/Commerce

    See the pdf given below for information on which FOSS would be relevant for which course using Spoken-tutorial.

    Click here Matching spoken-tutorial

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    Faculty development program on spoken tutorial for the Mechanical Department staff.


    Be a Part of the Spoken Tutorial Project

    The Spoken Tutorial Project-IIT Bombay welcomes one and all to be part of an IT revolution and contribute to spread awareness amongst students, teachers and other individuals of society. You can contribute as a -

    1. SELF Training Organiser

    2. SELF Training RESOURCE Center

    3. SELF Training Partner


    1. SELF Training Organiser:-

    Any Staff/Officer/Faculty member can be an organizer of such as top mechanical engineering college. They make the first contact with the Spoken Tutorial team, IIT Bombay. Later it is important that a Faculty member/Staff/Officer/Teacher become in charge of organising the training. As mentioned Organisers need not know the Software to be taught in the Training / Workshop. The Organiser will arrange the computer lab and coordinate with students, say 20-30, could be more, and fix a date and timing for the first training. He/She will take care of all the prerequisites as per the checklist, for successful conduction of the Training. He/She will be in touch with the Spoken Tutorial team, IIT Bombay, on a regular basis to ensure that the training is successfully completed. It is mandated for almost all students in the college to get a chance to take the training. For this, the Organiser should identify Faculty from other departments to register and start requesting training sessions. Towards this he/she can involve the Principal or Director if necessary. The Organiser should also make a calendar or a time-table to arrange more batches in his own department.

    2. SELF Training RESOURCE Center

    Any College / University such as Mechanical engg Diploma college in Pimpri Chinchwad which wishes to contribute towards IT literacy and awareness can become a RESOURCE (Robust Extensions for Spoken Tutorial project on Open Source Software Usage for Recruitment, Community and Education) Center. A RESOURCE Center can conduct remote SELF workshops in its college, for other colleges and can also train other colleges and schools in conducting Spoken Tutorial SELF training. It can identify SELF training Organisers in Polytechnic, ITI and degree colleges, in and around its district. A RESOURCE Center can create a team of students and faculty members who will work on In this way, the project can be spread and awareness created in the entire state. Additionally it is expected that the RESOURCE Center will train all its students as well incorporate the Software courses in the curriculum where relevant.

    A RESOURCE Center will be awarded an Appreciation Letter from Spoken Tutorial project, IIT Bombay. RESOURCE Centers can mention that they are authorised RESOURCE Centers of Spoken Tutorial project, IIT Bombay on their website and in their advertisements.

    3. SELF Training Partner

    These are universities and government bodies at state level such as DTE, CET, DET, DHE, VIT, DCE an so on. At their level and because they have a large circle of influence, such bodied can spread Spoken Tutorial based software training in a big way by Awareness - Circulars, Enabling - arranging training and appointing officers at regional/ zonal level, Monitoring - continuously motivating and urging the colleges to come forward and do the SELF Training on their campuses.



    Prof. S.T. Birhade

    Prof. H.S. Daund

    Mechanical Department(Second Shift)

    Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic





    11. Industry Student Interaction

    What is Industry student interaction?

    In engineering colleges teachers taught what is in curriculum given by their universities or by technical board, depending upon type of college. They do their duties as per any normal college does. When a word comes Industry student interaction, above things get changed. Along with teaching teachers shows them actual practices in industries or send them for training in industries or invite faculty from industries or arrange small workshops to understand relation in industry and curriculum.

    Due to which students understand atmosphere of industries, actual link between theory and practical's, concept of engineering, applications of engineering and last but not least respect for their parents as they understand in which conditions our parents are working.

    What are ways to increase Industry student’s interaction?

    Well there are many ways as follows.

    1. Industrial visits.
    2. Guest lectures. (Industry experts)
    3. Workshops arranged for students.
    4. Industrial trainings for few days or for months
    5. Industry sponsored Projects

    1) Industrial visits

    The things which are learned in colleges are cleared in industries by visiting it. For example if we learn any process in class room, we can see it actual in industry and we are now clearer about it.

    During visits we understand various departments in industries, how it is co-related with each other, what is sequence of operations, which is first department, which is last department, why it is at last or first? What is organization chart? What is top most post in industry?

    Answer of all this things helps to choose the field or career in which students have enter. It also improves some of their qualities like behavior, curiosity, decision making etc. Faculties of respective subjects also visit the industries along with students to show them theoretical concepts and reality in industries.


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    Visit to industry of Mechanical Engineering students, Experts explaining the process of manufacturing.

    2) Guest Lectures

    Unlike visit in this case students don't have to go directly to visit the industry but colleges invites a persons from industries to provide information's about new trends in industries or to provide some knowledge in industries.

    The session may be of 1-2 hours or more than it, but it helpful for students clears their doubts. Generally college decides a subject according to which experts are invited. Subject is selected by considering syllabus of students and gaps between current trends in market or industries.

    Here also students get ideas of new trends, and collects needful data for future planning about career. Sometimes experts are invited to provide information about personality development, career guidance, communications skills which does not provide any technical information but improve their skills, guide them to choose right path, help them to face interviews.


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    Experts lecture to Mechanical Engineering students.

    3) Workshops

    We visited industries, we called experts from industries then why we need workshops? In visits we spend few hours but we didn't do any practicals, in case of expert lecture we just listen about the things but in Workshops we perform some practical work. That’s why we need workshops.

    Workshop may be arranged for a day or for 2-3days or for weeks and months. This helps to improve some skills in student’s especially motor skills, intellectual skills as they are working on some of devices or machine or software's.

    At same time they are getting some extra knowledge apart from syllabus. They are directly coming in contacts with machines, their parts, instruments, measuring devices. It doesn't mean that it happens with them first time, it was happened with them during college practical sessions but this time they are spending more time and getting more knowledge of new things which are apart from syllabus given by universities or Boards.

    Some of the workshops are arranged apart from syllabus but having part of Engineering in it.

    4) Industrial Trainings

    We can consider it as bunch of all above (Industrial visits, Expert lectures and Workshops). As in Industrials Trainings students have to visits Industries daily up to 15 days or up to months. There they have to observe the things going in industries, have to stay with experts and perform task given by them if permitted.

    Generally students in group of four to five visit industries, understands processes from stating to end, studies it well, prepare a report over it and submit to college. During these days they have to visit each department and try to understand their working.

    While living in industries they have follow some safety rules, to avoid accidents and proper working of industry. In few words they experiences actual industry life in college days.

    5) Industry Sponsored projects

    In the syllabus of Engineering on last year students have to prepare a projects on related course of engineering .Either they can work of their own idea or they can go to industry to work on live project.

    Sometimes companies allow working on their projects to students. Students help them to complete their task within given period of time. At the end of project company provides a certificate to student in which they mention student’s contribution in company project.

    In this case both get benefited. Students get idea of working atmosphere in company, working with experts, problem solution within time, customer interactions, team work etc.

    These are the 5 basic ways to interact with company. All the colleges doesn't full fill all the criteria's discussed above, only few Colleges are able to do so and one of them is Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic,Nigdi,Pune. Which are includes in Top polytechnic colleges in pune.

    In Mechanical Engineering department of Pimpri chinchwad polytechnic (best diploma college in pune) at every semesters at least 2 visits are conducted for every class, at least 2 experts are conducted for every class, at least 1 workshop is conducted for every class, near about all students of 2nd year goes for industrial trainings and at least 2-3 projects are industry sponsored.

    Conclusion:

    This makes Department strong in knowledge, healthy in admissions, good feedback from companies about students’ knowledge and behavior. This is also helpful for placements point of view, as students can add the things like workshop attended or industrial training which makes impression over interviewer.



    Prashant M Khirapate

    Mechanical Department

    Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic,Pune




    12. Vibration Testing and Performance Analysis of IC Engine Exhaust Valve Using Finite Element Technique


    This Blog is written by a Faculty of Pimpri chinchwad Polytechnic which is a best polytechnic college. The research paper of this topic is presented by Ms. M.R. Zade in 7th International conference of recent trend in engineering and science which was held in S. Moze college of engg, Balewadi, Pune on date 1st April

    Abstract- During running condition of engine it allows the burned gasses to go out in the environment through the silencer. Hence the engine valve operated at high pressure and temperature. Also the very important part of its movement is that, it should operate within a fraction of second so as to allow burned mixture to go out. The vibrations at a particular frequency range also can create the resonance phenomenon which can also cause damage of valve. Hence the study of vibrations set up in the valve is very important. In this paper we are testing vibration effects on IC engine exhaust valve and also finding out the natural frequency of valve to identify the resonance phenomenon frequency level. The obtained results and effects are illustrated further so as to prevent valve damage. To perform overall process. Finite Element Technique is very useful and convenient which provides better approximate solution. Exhaust valves are exposed to thermal stress more than intake valve because intake valve are virtually cooled by fresh air. However burnt gases have very high temperature in the range of 800 to10000C because of this frequency of failure of exhaust valve is higher than inlet valve.

    1. INTRODUCTION

    Two stroke engine valves operated at high loading condition. Due to this failure chances are more. So it needs regular inspection and maintenance so as to reduce failure chances. Hence the operating cost will gate reduced and the life of component is more. Wear effects will produce various issues related to failure, but due to regular inspection and maintenance we are able to increase the life of component. As the valve material is hardest and having good working properties, there are less chances of damage due to the resonance effect.

    2. LITRATURE SURVEY

    Following litratures are studied,

    [1] Nurten VARDAR, Ahmet EKERİM Investigation of Exhaust Valve Failure in Heavy – duty Diesel Engine Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 34349 Istanbul, Turkey Received: 25.08.2009 Revised: 23.10.2009 Accepted: 13.11.2009
    [2] Naresh Kr. Raghuwanshi, Ajay Pandey, R. K. Mandloi Failure Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Valves: A Review Department of Applied
    Mechanics, M.A.N.I.T., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India1
    [3] Miroslaw Wendeker, Pawel Magryta,Adam Majczak, Michal Bialy Modeling the thermal loadsnin the SUBARU EJ25 Engine Lublin University ofb Technology, Nadbystrzycka Street 36/605A, 20- 618 Lublin, Poland, email: p.magryta@pollub.pl, mJournal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 18, No. 1 2011
    [4] A. Hornik, D. Jędrusik, K. Wilk Unsteady state heat flow in the exhaust valve in turbocharged Diesel engine covered by the layer of the carbon deposit Department of Automotive Vehicle Service, Faculty of Transport, Silesian University of Technology, ul. Krasińskiego 8, 40-019 nKatowice, Poland, International Scientific Journal published monthly by the World Academy of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering,
    Received 05.02.2012; published in revised form 01.04.2012
    [5] M. Azadi1*, M Roozban2, A. Mafi ,Failure analysis of an intake valve in a gasoline engine
    Fatigue and Wear Workgroup, Irankhodro Powertrain Company (IPCO), Tehran, Iran,
    m_azadi@ip-co.com The Journal of Engine Research, Vol. 26 (spring 2012), pp. 03-09
    [6] Dr. Ing. Holger Fellmann,Typical wear mechanism of 2-stroke exhaust valves Head of2-
    stroke department & service; Märkisches Werk GmbH Royal Belgian Institute of Marine Engineers, Marine Propulsion conference 2012.

    3. MODES OF FAILURES OF VALVES

    Following are different types of failure and their causes of inlet & exhaust valve.

    Failure Due to Fatigue

    The meaning of word fatigue means “to tire” which is derived from latin word “Fatigue”. In engineering language/terminology fatigue failure is a progressive structural damage of the material of the component when the component under goes cyclic loading. There are two important categories of fatigue failure a) Mechanical failure due to fluctuating stresses due to cyclic load at high temperature. b) Thermal fatigue due to cyclic changes in component material temperature.

    Failures Due to High Temperature

    Exhaust valves operate at very high temperatures usually above 6000 C and are subjected to cyclic loading. The failure of the conical surface/sealing area of valve is mainly caused by the elastic and plastic deformation. Exhaust valve stem generally fails by overheating because the temperature of the exhaust valve is about 600 ºC. The fracture surface of the valve stem is covered with a black oxide scale formation. Fracture surface in the fatigue area is smooth and is covered with thick oxide or deposits that cannot be removed satisfactorily.

    Failure of Valve Due to Erosion-Corrosion

    Surface material is removed in service life and it is the result of erosion by small, solid, impacting particles. In most elevated - temperature erosion environments, the eroding surface is undergoing corrosion as well as erosion. In one test series, a nickel oxide scale was formed up to 100 μm thick at1000ºC on commercially pure nickel.

    Failure of Valve Due to Vibrational Effects

    Exhaust valves are exposed to thermal stress more than intake valve because intake valve are virtually cooled by fresh air. However burnt gases have very high temperature in the range of800 to10000C because of this frequency of failure of exhaust valve is higher than inlet valve.

    4.VALVE MODELING PROCESS BY CATIA SOFTWARE

    There are several CAD software are available for 3D modeling. To model the exhaust valve we have chosen CATIA V5.

    PCPFig. 1 : Sketch in CATIA

    5. PERFORMING VIBRATION ANALYSIS

    To perform vibration analysis on exhaust valve we have to go through the model analysis with FEA software. Vibrations set up in valve can be measured in Hz with its maximum deformation values in mm. Model analysis is nothing but an vibration analysis where the vibrations are measured in the form of frequency range set up in valve during vibrations.
    Here ANSYS is the FEA package that we are using for performing vibration analysis over exhaust valve.

    6. VALVE MATERIAL

    While performing analysis on valve we need to assign initial and boundary conditions of valve. The material properties of valve are the important factors for performing vibration analysis. Due to hardness at room temperature (50 Rockwell C) for Steel alloys with a martensitic grain structure after tempering, properties like strength, wear resistance improve extensively. Such characteristics of valve material are good for long life of valve with efficient performance and high corrosion resistance.

    6.1 Material Properties Of Structural Steel

    A shank end of crane hook is fixed and a loads are applied on bunch of nodes at lower centre of hook in downward direction. A load of 1ton (9806N) is taken for analysis. First material selected for crane hook is Structural Steel and the properties of material are given below:

    Structural Steel > Constants

    Density

    7850kgm^-3

    Expansion

    1.2e-005C^-1

    Specific Heat

    434Jkg^-1C^-1

    Thermal Conductivity

    60.5Wm^-1C^-1

    Modulus of elasticity

    2.5e05Mpa

    Poissons Ratio

    0.3

    Structural Steel > Tensile Yield Strength

    Tensile Yield Strength Pa

    2.5e+008

    Structural Steel > Tensile Ultimate Strength

    7. MESHING OF EXHAUST VALVE

    Meshing is nothing but converting entire object into small number of pieces which are connected to each other by means of connecting points. Each small piece of an object is called as element and the connecting points are called as nodes. It is one of the important step in FEA to carry out required solution. For generation of meshing of exhaust valve we are 3D tetrahedron element. This process is also called discretisation process. Following figure 2 shows the meshed view of an exhaust valve. using Exhaust vale meshing details with respect to nodes
    and elements.
    Maximum Nodes = 18015
    Maximum Elements = 87269

    PCP

    Figure 3: Meshed view of exhaust valve.

    8. INITIAL AND BOUNDARY CONDITION FOR EXHAUST VALVE

    Constraining of valve for vibration analysis is done by applying initial and boundary conditions. Valve geometry is constrained at the top in all directions. In vibration analysis vibration modes can be simulated by applying density value and other property values. Five modes of frequencies are obtained in vibration analysis after applying initial and boundary conditions. Maximum value of frequency will define safer object on vibration point of view.

    9. GENERATION OF VIBRATION ANALYSIS SOLUTION

    Solution for vibration analysis is obtained with five different mode sets and their respective deformations. Each mode specifies the vibration range in the form of frequency and maximum deformation at that frequency level. FEM technique is used to find out these mode frequencies. FEA tool is used for that purpose. Calculated results are studied to obtain conclusions. Maximum deformation is observed in the valve at the fifth mode of vibration. Here the frequency value is also greater than other frequency values in different modes. And this maximum frequency value also called natural frequency of exhaust valve. Exhaust valve may damage due to high vibrations at resonance frequency value which slightly greater than natural frequency of exhaust valve.

    10. ANALYSIS RESULTS

    The maximum value of frequency is 1511.3 Hz is obtained while performing vibration analysis on exhaust valve. This is the natural frequency value for exhaust valve. Above this value resonance phenomenon will accurse. All the frequency values are tabulated in following table for various modes of frequency.

    Table:1 Frequency values and their deformationfor each set

    SET

    FREQUENCY

    LOADSTEP

    SUBSTEP

    1

    139.635 Hz

    1

    1

    2

    139.99 Hz

    1

    2

    3

    845.76 Hz

    1

    3

    4

    1502.2 Hz

    1

    4

    5

    15011.3 Hz

    1

    5

    11. MODES AND VIBRATIONS

    11.1 Mode One Vibrations

    In this mode the observed frequency value is 139.635 Hz with maximum deformation 128.058mm. The deformation is observed at the bottom side of the valve. But as this portion is placed on valve sheet, this deformation is reduced.

    PCPFigure 4: First mode of vibration with possible deformation

    11.2 SECOND MODE OF VIBRATION:

    In this mode the deformation is reduced with negligible increment in frequency. The frequency value is observed to 139.986 Hz with deformation 128 mm. This deformation and frequency will not affect performance of valve.

    PCPFigure 5: Second mode of vibration with maximum deformation

    11.3 Mode Three Of Vibration:

    In this mode frequency suddenly increases with value 8 45.759 Hz with maximum deformation 218.317 mm. This deformation is large with frequency. But it is maximum allowable deformation. In actual condition there will not be such large deformation because of constraints available constraints available

    PCPFigure 6: Third mode of vibration with allowable deformation.

    11.4 Mode Four Of Vibration:

    Here also the frequency value increases. But increment is large with reduction in deformation. Maximum value of frequency is 1502.24 Hz with deformation of 203.93 mm. In this mode deformation is reduced as compare to third mode.

    PCPFigure 7: Fourth mode of vibration with frequency and deformation

    11.5 Mode Fifth Of Vibration:

    In this mode maximum deformation is 203.95 mm with maximum frequency 1511.34 Hz. Above this value valve may damage. Stem of valve is most affected zone. This maximum frequency is natural frequency of valve.

    PCPFigure 8: Maximum frequency with maximum deformation

    RESULT

    SET

    FREQUENCY

    DEFORMATION

    1

    139.63 Hz

    0.128 mm

    2

    139.98 Hz

    0.128 mm

    3

    845.75 Hz

    0.218 mm

    4

    1502.24 Hz

    0.203 mm

    5

    1511.34 Hz

    0.203 mm

    CONCLUSIONS

    By studying all five modes of vibrations we can conclude following points.

    1. Deformation and frequency value in first and second mode of vibration is approximately same.
    2. Deformation is large in all modes of vibration and needs to reduce.
    3. Maximum frequency of valve provides better stability.
    4. For deformation in each mode, constraints are required.
    5. Exhaust valve have a good frequency but deformation needs to reduce.



    Prof.Mamta R. Zade

    Lecturer (Second Shift)

    Mechanical Department

    Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic





    13. CAD/CAM/CAE


    The computers are being used in all facets of our life. In this blog , the application of computers for dececrete manufacturing will be discussed.After completing of this blog the reader will able to know the 1.CAD(Computer Aided Drafting& Design) and its applications.2.CAM(Computer Aided Manufacturing) and its applications.3.CIM(Computer Integrated Manufacturing).

    The role of computers in manufacturing industry may be classified in to two groups.

    • Computer monitoring and control of the manufacturing process.
    • Manufacturing support applications, which deals essentially with the preparations for actual manufacturing and post manufacture operations.

    PCP

    PCP

    The technology of CAD/CAM/CIM deals with the creation of information at different stages from design to marketing and integration of information and its effective communication among the various activities like design, product data management process planning, production planning and control, manufacturing, inspection, materials handling etc., which are individually carried out through computer software.

    CAD(Computer Aided Design)

    AutoCAD is a Commercial Computer Aided Drafting and Design software application. Developed and marketed by AutoDesk,, AutoCAD was first released in December 1982 as a desktop app running on  microcomputers with internal graphics, Auto-CAD is the design software to create the 2D & 3D drawing. We are at Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic Nigdi Pune-411044 which is the best polytechnic college in Pune region as well as all over Maharashtra. We are taking CAD-Mech event under the mechanical department in this event student should able to know the knowledge about CAD and draw the 2D & 3D drawing using CAD Software. AutoCAD is a computer-aided software drafting program. It is used for a number of applications like creating blueprints for buildings, bridges and computer chips to name a few. AutoCAD is 2D and 3D computer aided drafting software application. It is commercial software. Since 1982 it was a desktop application. Since 2010, it is available as a mobile, web and cloud-based app and known as AutoCAD 360.

    Some of the most common application of AutoCAD sample drawings and models can be found in the following industries.

    PCP

    Aerospace:
    Satellites, space vehicles, missiles, and aircrafts are produced in the aerospace industry. Auto CAD sample drawings play an important role in the first step of the design process, because any one these process costs millions of dollars. The details are thoroughly planned with the AutoCAD software before starting work on the final product.

    Automotive:
    Complex designs and software are required in all aspects of automotive designing. CAD is used to build prototypes and design of components like upholstery, circuitry boards, engines, tires, and so on.

    Architecture:
    Before beginning with the definite construction project, buildings have to be planned perfectly.2D and 3D plans are designed using CAD. Schematics of offices, houses, and various other commercial buildings are designed as well using CAD. Accurate specifications like weights, volumes, and measurements are found using AutoCAD sample drawings.

    Civil engineering:
    Metropolitan planners use CAD software to plan infrastructure projects such as Bridges, office complexes, industrial units, and so on.

     CAM(Computer Aided Manufacturing)

    CAM is the acronym for Computer Aided Manufacturing,“the use of computer systems to plan, manage, and control the operations of a manufacturing plant through their direct or indirect computer interface with the plant’s resources." n simple terms using the computers to carry out various manufacturing related activities is called as Computer Aided Manufacturing. The use of the computers can be to plan the manufacturing of the product, to carry out actual manufacturing of the product by linking the computers to machines and programming the computers, etc. In many cases the CAD and CAM are combined together. This means the product to be manufactured is first designed on the computer and it is also manufactured using the computers systems.

     Functions Performed by CAM

    The functions performed by the computers systems in CAM applications fall under two broad categories, which have been described below:

    1) Computer monitoring and control: In these applications the computer is connected directly to the manufacturing process for the purpose of monitoring or controlling the manufacturing process. Here the computer is fed with the program that directs the working of the machine, which is connected to it. Usually in such cases is no operator required to operate the machines, and they have to merely supervise the machine. At a time one operator can take care of more than one number of machines. These machines are also called as Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machines. These days the use of CNC machines has become very common. They can carry out the high quality production at a very fast rate that helps the companies remain competitive in the market.

    2) Manufacturing Support Applications: In these applications the computer systems are used to assist in various productions related activities like production planning, scheduling, making forecasts, giving manufacturing instructions and other relevant information that can help manage company’s manufacturing resources more effectively. There is no direct interface between the computers and the manufacturing process in this case.
    In present scenario one just can’t think of manufacturing any product without the use of computers in some or the other way. Either for designing of the product or manufacturing of the product, the use of computers has become compulsory. Since most of the companies do designing or drawing as well as manufacturing, the CAD/CAM has become an inseparable combination.
    In many cases the final feature geometry can be used directly, completed with attributes like offsets, the needed technology, tools and machining strategies. However depending on the used technology, planned operations as e.g. number of roughing and finishing cuts, the sequence of workingsteps, quality targets like surface quality or shape enhancements additional machining features, must be created at the CAM system. These features are based on the geometry of the raw part and the final geometry derived from the design features. Intelligent CAM systems are able to do this automatically when operations and workingsteps are specified by the planning engineer.
    There fore we conclude that after the reading this blog the student should able to know the overall idea about the CAD and they also getting the knowledge about the solid works.We are taking expert lecture on Auto-CAD ones in a semester in our college Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic which is counted in Top diploma engineering colleges pune.



    Prof.T.V.Inde

    Lecturer (Second Shift)

    Mechanical Department

    Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic,Pune





    14. Introduction to Powder Metallurgy and powder manufacturing processes


    There are various methods by which we can do manufacturing and one of them is Powder Metallurgy. Which comes in a family of production technologies, which process a feedstock in powder form to manufacture components of various types? These production technologies generally involve all or most of the following process steps:

    PCP

    Powder production

    Virtually all iron powders for PM structural part production are manufactured using either the sponge iron process or water atomization. Non ferrous metal powders used for other PM applications can be produced via a number of methods.

    Mixing of powders

    This can often involve the introduction of alloying additions in elemental powder form or the incorporation of a pressing lubricant.

    Forming of the mixed powder into a compact

    The dominant consolidation process involves pressing in a rigid toolset, comprising a die, punches and, possibly, mandrels or core rods. However, there are several other consolidation processes that are used in niche applications.

    Sintering of the compact to enhance integrity and strength

    This process step involves heating of the material, usually in a protective atmosphere, to a temperature that is below the melting point of the major constituent. In some cases, a minor constituent can form a liquid phase at sintering temperature; such cases are described as liquid phase sintering. The mechanisms involved in solid phase and liquid phase sintering are discussed briefly in a later section.

    Secondary operations

    The application of finishing processes to the sintered part. In the Powder Metallurgy industry, such processes are often referred to as “secondary operations”.

    Advantages & limitations
    1. Efficient material utilization
    2. Enables close dimensional tolerances – near net shape possible
    3. Good surface finish
    4. Manufacture of complex shapes possible
    5. Hard materials used to make components that are difficult to machine can be readily made – tungsten wires for incandescent lamps
    6. Environment friendly, energy efficient
    7. Suited for moderate to high volume component production
    8. Powders of uniform chemical composition => reflected in the finished part Wide variety of materials => miscible, immiscible systems; refractory metals
    9. Parts with controlled porosity can be made
    10. High cost of powder material & tooling
    11. Less strong parts than wrought ones
    12. Less well known process
    Production of powders

    Metal powders => Main constituent of a P/M product; final properties of the finished P/M part depends on size, shape, and surface area of powder particles.

    Single powder production method is not sufficient for all applications Powder production methods: 1. Mechanical methods, 2. Physical methods,
    3. Chemical methods

    1. Mechanical methods

    => Cheapest of the powder production methods; these methods involve using mechanical forces such as compressive forces, shear or impact to facilitate particle size reduction of bulk materials. Eg.: Milling

    Milling:

    During milling, impact, attrition, shear and compression forces are acted upon particles. During impact, striking of one powder particle against another occurs. Attrition refers to the production of wear debris due to the rubbing action between two particles. Shear refers to cutting of particles resulting in fracture. The particles are broken into fine particles by squeezing action in compression force type. Main objective of milling: Particle size reduction (main purpose), Particle size growth, shape change, agglomeration (joining of particles together), solid state alloying, mechanical or solid state mixing, modification of material properties.

    Mechanism of milling:

    Changes in the morphology of powder particles during milling results in the following events.

    1. Microforging, 2. Fracture, 3. Agglomeration, 4. Deagglomeration

    Microforging: Individual particles or group of particles are impacted repeatedly so that they flatten with very less change in mass

    Fracture: Individual particles deform and cracks initiate and propagate resulting in fracture

    Agglomeration: Mechanical interlocking due to atomic bonding or vande Waals forces

    Deagglomeration: Breaking of agglomerates

    The different powder characteristics influenced by milling are shape, size, texture, particle size distribution, crystalline size, chemical composition, hardness, density, flow ability, compressibility, sinter ability, sintered density milling equipment: The equipments are generally classified as crushers & mills.

    Crushing: Breaking of agglomerates

    For making ceramic materials such as oxides of metals; grinding
    For reactive metals such as titanium, zirconium, niobium, tantalum

    Grinding: Different types of grinding equipments/methods are shown in the figure Jaw crusher Gyratory crusher Roll crusher Ball Mill Vibratory Ball Mill Attritor Rod Mill Hammer Mill Planetary Mill

    PCP

    Fig. Crushers and various Mills

    Ball mills: This contains cylindrical vessel rotating horizontally along the axis. Length of the cylinder is more or less equal to diameter. The vessel is charged with the grinding media. The grinding media may be made of hardened steel, or tungsten carbide, ceramics like agate, porcelain, alumina, zirconia. During rolling of vessel, the grinding media & powder particles roll from some height. This process grinds the powder materials by impact/collision & attrition.

    Milling: It can be dry milling or wet milling. In dry milling, about 25 vol% of powder is added along with about 1 wt% of a lubricant such as stearic or oleic acid. For wet milling, 30-40 vol% of powder with 1 wt% of dispersing agent such as water, alcohol or hexane is employed.

    • Optimum diameter of the mill for grinding powders is about 250 mm Vibratory ball mill
    • Finer powder particles need longer periods for grinding
    • In this case, vibratory ball mill is better => here high amount of energy is imparted to the particles and milling is accelerated by vibrating the container
    • This mill contains an electric motor connected to the shaft of the drum by an elastic coupling. The drum is usually lined with wear resistant material. During operation, 80% of the container is filled with grinding bodies and the starting material. Here vibratory motion is obtained by an eccentric shaft that is mounted on a frame inside the mill. The rotation of eccentric shaft causes the drum of the vibrating mill to oscillate.
    • In general, vibration frequency is equal to 1500 to 3000 oscillations/min. The amplitude of oscillations is 2 to 3 mm. The grinding bodies are made of steel or carbide balls that are 10-20 mm in diameter. The mass of the balls is 8-10 times the charged particles. Final particle size is of the order of 5-100 microns Vibratory Ball Mill

    Attrition Mill: IN this case, the charge is ground to fine size by the action of a vertical shaft with side arms attached to it. The ball to charge ratio may be 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1. This method is more efficient in achieving fine particle size. Rod mills: Horizontal rods are used instead of balls to grind. Granularity of the discharge material is 40-10 mm. The mill speed varies from 12 to 30 rpm.

    Planetary Mill: High energy mill widely used for producing metal, alloy, and composite powders.

    Part of powder metallurgy is included in syllabus of Diploma Mechanical engineering and also taught in Top polytechnic colleges in Pune. A model (Thermocol) of ball mill is made by students of Best polytechnic college in Maharashtra which helps to understand working.



    P.M.khirapate

    Lecturer (Second Shift)

    Mechanical Department

    Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic,Pune





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