1. Determination of slope ( Gental ) distance
Subject :- Surveying ( 17310)
We discussing about determination of slope with second year civil Engineering Diploma students in Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic which is best s polytechnic in Pune
At the time of discussion we know that when the slope of the ground surface is long and gentle, the stepping method is not suitable. In this method horizontal distance is not determined on field directly so it is called In-direct method of chaining.
- By measuring the slope with Clinometer
- By applying hypotenusal allowance
- By knowing the difference of level between the points.
1. By measuring the slope with clinometer.
Clinometer :- A Clinometer is graduated semicircular protractor. It consists of two pins (P1 & P2) for sighting the object. A plumb bob is suspended from point ‘o’ with thread. When straight edge is tilted Clinometer shows the angle of slope.
2. By measuring the slope with clinometer.
Suppose ‘C’ & ‘D’ are two points on sloping ground. Two ranging rods are fixed at these points ,then two other points ‘C1’& ‘D1’ are marked on the ranging rods so that CC1 = DD1. The Clinometer is placed in such a way that its center just touches the mark C1. The Clinometer is then inclined until the points P1,P2 &D1 are in same straight line. At this position the thread of the Clinometer will shows an angle which is the slope angle of ground. Suppose it is α and the sloping distance is also measured.
CB = l cos α , l = sloping distance (CD)
Mr. S.N. Nanaware
Lecturer Civil Engineering
Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic
2. Spoken Tutorial at PimpriChinchwad Polytechnic
The “PimpriChinchwad Education Trust” is composed group of highly active, devoted persons of high social standing. They have joined together to establish, develop and run a large technical and allied education institutes comprising various useful educational courses. This suburb being the largest Industrial area in Asia needed enormous technically skilled manpower.
With these dual objectives of public and industrial needs trust invited reputed citizens from this region to participate in this Local and National endeavour and established PimpriChinchwad Education Trust. The trust then introduced Diploma Courses in Engineering by starting the PimpriChinchwad Polytechnic College in Pune from the year 1990.
PimpriChinchwad Polytechnic is one of the Best diploma colleges in Pune, which in the year 2015 celebrated its Silver Jubilee.
This institute consists of best Diploma engineering college, pacious buildings for various Engineering Departments, sports ground, canteen, and mess which are spread over large area of land under PimpriChinchwad New Town Development Authority popularly known as Pradhikaran. The plot has been developed into a beautiful landscape in the vicinity of Akurdi railway station.
PCP which is the best polytechnic is 25 years old institution in Maharashtra which is affiliated to AICTE, DTE and MSBTE.
Best part of it for skill development of students the trainings in collboration with Spoken Tutorial Project, IIT, Bombay are conducted at PimpriChinchwad Polytechnic.
To list a some the specific objectives of this program were :
- Initiative of National Mission on Education through ICT, MHRD, Govt. of India
- Awareness about Spoken Tutorial Project among the staff.
- Distance Learning
- Self Learning
- IT Literacy
About Spoken Tutorial Project, IIT, Bombay
The Spoken Tutorial project is the initiative of the ‘Talk to a Teacher’ activity of the National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT), launched by the Ministry of Human Resources and Development, Government of India.
The use of spoken tutorials to popularize software development and its use will be coordinated through this website.
(The Spoken Tutorial project is being developed by IIT Bombay for MHRD, Government of India) it is officially launched on January 26, 2010.
www.spoken-tutorial.org is the official website of Spoken Tutorial Project. The following is the home page of this site.
Tutorials on various free and open source softwares (FOSS) in various Indian regional languages. The MHRD has funded so entire program with Certificates are free of cost.
There are two purposes – Skills focus for employment and academic focus for improving exam performance. Spoken Tutorial is an audio-video tool that teaches Open Source Software. Through active learnig method, the softwares can be learnt in short, simple steps.
Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic
Maharashtra state board of Technical education (M.S.B.T.E, Mumbai) introduces Design of steel structure by limit state method SUBJECT in 5th semester in the curriculum from 2013-14 for civil engineering branch. The study of IS-800 -2007 is done at Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic,Which is one of best polytechnic in Pune.
Overview of IS-800-2007
Since last two decades Limit State concept of Design (LSD) of steel structure has been adopted by the structural engineers worldwide. In India it is still a new concept for the practicing structural engineers as the formal publication of IS 800-2007 was made in Dec, 2007, only seven years back. As a result Indian engineers are to face a real challenge to cover-up the gap in between. Publication of ISO: 2943 in 90‟s is a mile stone of global acceptance of LSD. Revision of IS 800-1984 to IS: 800: 2007 is made for a complete change of concept of design hitherto followed. Implementation of LSD was a problem in all most all the countries in the world. India is also facing the same due to delayed introduction of LSD codes when the level of knowledge on limit state developed very fast internationally. Today it becomes an urgent task for the Indian structural engineers to study and review more and more the basic philosophy and concept in contrast to the traditional method of Working Stress Design (WSD) in a documented manner so that this can help everyone in this field for effective application of LSD in practical design. This paper will address this issue as why it becomes a real historical challenge for engineers in India. Here it will also be attempted to highlight the basic philosophical understanding required for successful transformation from the traditional concept to this new concept of LSD. Some comparative design review of both the codes will also be presented for practical understanding of the conceptual changes.
Concept of limit state method
The object of limit state design can be paraphrased as achievement of an acceptable probability that a part or whole of structure will not become unfit for its intended use during its life time owing to collapse, excessive deflection etc, under the actions of all loads and load effects. The acceptable limits of safety and serviceability requirements before failure occurs are called as limit state. For achieving the design objectives, the design shall be based on characteristic values for material strengths and applied loads (actions), which take into account the probability of variations in the material strengths and in the loads to be supported. The characteristic values shall be based on statistical data, if available. Where such data is not available, these shall be based on experience. The design values are derived from the characteristic values through the use of partial safety factors, both for material strengths and for loads. In the absence of special considerations, these factors shall have the values given in this section according to the material, the type of load and the limit state being considered. The reliability of design is ensured by satisfying the requirement:
Design action ≤ Design strength
Lecturer Civil Engineering
Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic
4. Estimating & Costing
Estimating is the process of calculating the quantities and costs of various items required for satisfactory completion of the work & the process of Calculating the actual cost of work before its execution is called as ‘Costing’ this concept is taught in best Civil diploma engineering college in pune.
Purposes of estimating:-
- To know the approximate cost of proposed work.
- To obtain administrative approval and technical sanction.
- To know the requirement of tools, plants and equipment.
- To fix up the completion period.
- To draw up a construction schedule and programme.
- To invite tender for execution of work.
- To keep control over expenditure during construction
Purpose of Costing:-
- To arrange the finance for proposed work.
- To know the probable cost of project before the execution.
- For valuation of existing property
- To know the cost of various items, well in advance, to be constructed
Types of estimate
- Detail estimate
- Approximate estimate
Detail estimate: Detailed estimate is an accurate estimate and consists of working out the quantities of each item of work. The dimensions, length, breadth and height of each item are taken out correctly from drawing and quantities of each item are calculate, and abstracting and billing are done. All other expenses required for satisfactory completion of project are added to the above cost to know the total cost of the detailed estimate.
To give the client rough idea of probable expenditure in short time without calculating the actual quantities, from the cost of similar structure having similar specification, construction & locality. In case of Government & public bodies, for sanctioning of the expenditure required for the project in the form of Administrative approval. In case of commercial projects to study the cost-benefit ratio. If it is justified the project is carried out. For BOT/PPP Systems approximate estimates plays important role for decision making & for preparation of Feasibility Report of Project
Formats use in Detail Estimate
Standard Format of Measurement Sheet
Standard Format of Abstract Sheet
Standard Format of face Sheet
Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic
5. Understanding the Domestic waste
While residing in a society we always feel that something is missing even everything is there .We tries to find the missing one but we can’t the thing which we feel but do not realize is nothing but solid waste .We always used to say I am residing in a posh society of a city but at the same time I am forgetting the solid waste.
Nobody wants to talk about the solid waste but its time to come forward for the discussion, and to find the way how we should manage our domestic waste to create the hygienic conditions, and to prevent the public health As the solid waste creates ugliness, nuisance. Creating the waste in the form may be of is natural by human being but disposing it is in a systematic way as a being human. This article discusses what is exactly solid waste Why it is important for an individual? What I can do for solid waste? and ultimately how I can achieve a target of Swach city, smart city and obliviously “Swacha Bharat”
In earlier days when population of an area was limited the problem of solid waste was no serious but due to rapid industrialization,the volume of solid waste is increased tremendously. The city corporation has to establish a separate department of sanitation. We know that the journey of a common man is from village to a nearby city. While he was residing in village he is having habit of not to create the unwanted waste in the house. He always uses a cloth bag to buy grocery, medicines, milk and likewise items. But in now a days nobody wants to carry the cloth bag. The storekeeper is providing the plastic bags as per the needs of the customer and hence quantity of plastic is increasing rapidly in the waste. Let us see what is domestic waste?
The solid wastes that originate from single and multi-family household units. These wastes are generated from household activities such as cooking, cleaning, repairs, hobbies, redecoration, empty containers, packaging, clothing, old books, writing/new paper, and old furnishings is called as domestic waste .
How to store the domestic waste from households
1 Not to throw any solid waste in the neighbourhood , on streets ,on open spaces and vacant lands ,into drains or water bodies
2 Keep food waste / biodegradable waste in a non corosive container with a cover
3 keep dry / recyclable waste in a bin / bag or a sack
Segregation of domestic waste
The Segregation is the key factor in the solid waste management system segregation at house hold level is found to be a measure problem of Indian people. Even though we are having several rules and regulations for segregation nobody wish to follow the rules and the policy makers are also not worrying about this issue. As proper segregation provides the ease in collection, transportation and processing of the waste. An individual must have the awareness about the segregation of the waste at source.
Segregation at source
Segregation at source is most important aspect of solid waste management. The waste i.e. domestic waste may be segregated at our house. The waste may be bifurcated into two parts wet waste and dry waste. In simple way, waste segregation is the separation of wet waste and dry waste. We can not stop the production of waste, and the materials carried in this waste impacts human and environmental health.
Wet waste :- The waste which is organic in nature and easily degradable.It includes the sweepings from household, waste food, peelings of fruits, vegetables, garbage etc.such kind of waste should be treated at our own house.The following are the some measures to be adopted for proper implementation.
Keep the following habits
1) Use separate containers for dry and wet waste in the kitchen
2) Use two bags for dry waste collection- paper and plastic , for the rest of the household waste
3) Keep plastic from the kitchen clean and dry and drop into the dry waste bin.
4) Keep glass /plastic containers rinsed of food matter; Send wet waste out .
The another and the most valuable way to treat the domestic waste is vermicomposting. Even if you are residing in an apartment or in a separate house one can follow the vermicomposting. It can be done in a very little space, in the backyard of the houses, on the terrace, or even balcony can be sufficient for the project. For Indian people its time to start such practices .Until and unless we do not start such practices we can not escape from this issue.The vermicomposting has many advantages as it increases moisture and nutrient of the soil, efficient conversion of organic wastes, provides high quality manure, it is ecofriendly technique.
We do not think every time that the solid waste is not my responsibility I am paying tax so the local body will do it Even the citizens are paying the tax, the local body is making the necessary arrangement for waste but at least to reduce the waste load on the treatment plant we could reduce the volume of the waste by segregating it at source, by adopting practices like vermicomposting etc.
When we leave our house in the morning we expect that the house should be cleaned It is natural At office also we do not want to start the work without cleaning .Cleaning gives pleasure. The cleaning residue is actually called as domestic waste. The domestic waste may includeThe material wchich is non soluble which we thow away in solid or semi solid form. It includes garbage, sweepings.
The domestic waste is classified as 1) wet waste 2) dry waste
Wet waste :--It is an organic waste usually generated by eating’s by human .It is heavy in weight
Dry waste ;--It includes wood and its related products, metal, glass, plastic cans, bottles, paper clips, screws ,goggles ,plastic /paper cones etc
The waste may be mixed type biodegradable and recyclable or it may be debris silt ,The biodegradable waste and which is in the wet form is produced by vegetables and fruit remainders ,leaves spoiled food, eggshells, cotton. Therecyclable waste which is any dry form consists of newspapers ,thermocole, plastic, battery cells, iron sheet and glass etc.
On an average production rate of waste by an individual is 0.5—0.5 kg. It Includes various types of waste such as plastic waste, paper waste, food waste, vegetable waste and meat waste, garbage and similar type of waste
It is estimated that the urban local bodies spent @500—1500per Tonne on solid waste for collection, Transportation and disposal.
Impact of solid waste on environment due to improper management of solid waste
1) Ground water contamination by the leachate generated by thewaste dump
2) Surface water contamination by the run-off from the waste dump
3) Bad odour, pests, rodents and wind-blown litter in and around the waste dump
4)Generation of inflammable gas (e.g. methane) within the waste dump
5) Bird menace above the waste dump which affects flight of aircraft
6) Fires within the waste dump
7) Erosion and stability problems relating to slopes of the waste dump
8)Epidemics through stray animals
9) Acidity to surrounding soil and Release of green house gas.
What I can do to minimize domestic waste?
1. Do not use plastic bags, use cloth bag, paper bag.
2. Ask the storekeeper not to give plastic bag to any customer.
3. Try to segregate the waste at source.
4. Use two waste bins one for wet waste and other for dry waste
5. Develop a good habits related with waste.
6. As per as possible reduce the quantity of waste by decomposing the Biode-gradable waste in any way.
7. Compost the waste on terraces or in open plots.
8. Do not throw away the waste anywhere.
9. Always discharge the waste into the road side waste containers
10. Attend the lectures and seminars on waste disposal.
11. Read the articles about the solid waste in news papers since so that one can understand
the seriousness about the waste.
12. Arrange the programs of on segregation of wet waste and dry waste in your society.
Bharat D Gidde
Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic